New Project in Technology Integration in Schools and Classrooms (Part 2) by larrycuban
In Part 1, I laid out my reasons for shifting my focus from disappointments and failures in uses of new technologies to best cases of such use in districts, schools, and classrooms. I also laid out two puzzles that have bugged me for a long time that may find solutions in describing and analyzing exemplars of technology fusion into schools and classrooms. In Part 2, I want to share my current thinking about how I plan to do the project in the next year or so and the obstacles that I see in front of me.
How do I plan to do the study?
The design of the project is a series of case studies drawn from districts and schools. The methodology I will use is interviews with district administrators, school principals, and classroom teachers. Also I will directly observe lessons, sit in on meetings on technology integration, and related professional development. Analysis of district, school, and classroom documents will provide the context of goals, strategies, assessments, and outcomes at different levels of schooling. Finally, describing the history of the district and schools insofar as access and use of new technologies over past quarter-century. All of these data make up each case study.
Where will I do the study?
I have chosen Northern California because it is the epicenter of techno-optimism about new technologies transforming the direction and nature of both K-12 and university education. Major high-tech firms located there such as Google, Apple, Oracle, Intel, and others have launched major initiatives in both software and hardware that focus on improving the practice of schooling. Some of these firms have designed specific educational software, trained teachers, and offered products directly to schools (seehere, here, here, and here). Specifically, I will focus on the Bay area which includes "Silicon Valley"--an area that covers San Jose through San Francisco. Early adopters and unvarnished fans of technology are in ample supply. A pervasive ideology across the region is anchored in taken-for-granted beliefs that new technology improves every aspect of daily life. Cultural norms among established firms, start-ups and wannabe entrepreneurs prize innovation, accept failure as part of life, and turn out beta versions of the "next new thing"daily. That ideology and culture is in the water Northern Californians drink and in the air they breathe. So exemplars of technology infusion in K-12 schools, powered by hallowed beliefs in the power of new technologies to alter habits and institutions, would surely exist here.
Thus far, one high school district and one charter management organization in Northern California have invited me to do this research this Spring. Where I go after February and March, I am uncertain. So far, so good.
What obstacles do I anticipate?
The first barrier I have to get around is defining exactly what is meant by "technology integration" or "technology infusion." Not an easy task. Multiple definitions abound (seehere and here). Moreover, standards used to inspire action and then judge to what degree "technology integration" occurs in a district, school, or classroom vary widely (seehere,here, and here). Rather than pick one among many definitions, I plan to find out how teachers, principals, and district administrators I interview and observe in action define technology integration and determine to what degree it is occurring in their locations. Moreover, I will have an array of standards for technology infusion from which to choose such as the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE), National Education Association (NEA), National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP), and similar organizations.
Another barrier is determining whether the example I describe and analyze in a district, school, or classroom is "good" technology integration. Why an obstacle? Because conceptions of "good" teaching and learning vary among educators and non-educators. Furthermore, because I am not looking at students' test scores and other common measures of success to determine "goodness," I cannot say that what I find out about "technology integration" can be attributed to student outcomes, be they high, plateauing, or low.
Then there is the problem of the design and generalizing from what I find. Doing case studies and figuring out to what degree I can generalize about "technology integration" becomes an issue to think through because the sample (districts, schools, and classrooms) is both small and unrepresentative--they are, after all, exemplars of integration. One way around the issue of generalizing is, of course, comparing what I find with other district and school case studies elsewhere in the U.S. The issue is a perennial one when doing case studies.
Add even another obstacle to the list. "Technology integration"--a desired change--is a reform. District policymakers want teachers to alter how and what they teach in order for students to learn more and better than using conventional classroom approaches. In most districts, such a "reform" is often part of a larger package of desired changes that district policymakers seek (e.g., Common Core standards, school-site decision-making, revised budget formulas). Thus, sorting out the effects of "technology integration" on teachers and students becomes very tricky because it is one of many initiatives undertaken in a district or a school. The temptation to attribute any degree of success--however defined--to, say, schools and teachers integrating technology into their daily routines is a common error (see here, here, and here ). I want to avoid making that mistake.
The list of obstacles is incomplete and this post is running too long. If viewers have any suggestions for me as I begin this work---particularly around obstacles that I anticipate--I welcome your advice and counsel.